The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that can explain the general lack of success of Russia's policy toward Europe and, in particular, Western European institutions after the Cold War. In fact, despite the end of the East–West confrontation, the role of Russia in Europe remains uncomfortable. Expectations that post–Soviet Russia could be integrated into the new European space failed to materialize. Unlike the former communist countries,which have already joined or are in the process of joining NATO and the European Union, Russia's status in Europe remains undetermined. Russia is a full member of only two European institutions (the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe or OSCE) and has difficult relations with all the others.
Working Paper 98–16, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1998.